Basic disk is what you know from former OS versions. The provide no fault tolerance. Partitions are on basic disks.
Dynamic disks are also known from former OS versions. Dynamic disks gives us no performance benefits. Volumes are on basic disks.
Fault-Tolerance can be implemented:
- Raid 0
- Raid 1
- Raid 5
- No RAID 10!
Virtual Hard Drives
Virtual Hard Drives are not the same as Virtual Disks!
- VHD or VHDX
- They are portable, you can easilly take it somewhere else (i.e. by copying over the network.
- They are created and mounted in Disk-Management.
- You can use the functionality to mount and unmount Hyper-V Disks (beware that they are not snapshotted
You can use different kind of disks and put them together in storage pools. After that we create virtual disk, in which we store our data.
- Simple (no fault tolerance)
- Two-way mirror (can tolerate one disk failure)
- Three-way mirror (can tolerate two disk failures)
- Parity (are designed for capacity efficiency and increased resiliency - requires at least three disks to protect you from a single disk failure)
- data store
- hot spare
More information to storage spaces in the TechNet-article Storage Spaces Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).